For decades agricultural research was done in the field or laboratories, but with the rise of computer science, hydrologic modeling became another essential tool for environmental impact studies. Many types of models can be used, each with its strengths and weaknesses in terms of accuracy, speed, and amount of input data needed. Models can be used on different scales and simulate very different processes. Based on a literature review, APEX (Agricultural Policy Extender) and SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) models are the most popular for environmental research in agronomy. An important share of modeling work in agronomic studies is focused on pollution research, mainly nutrient and pesticide leaching and soil erosion processes. Other topics include simulating the effects of irrigation and other agricultural practices and studying the impact of extreme weather events and climate change. When working with model results, it is crucial to be mindful of inevitable uncertainties and consider them during interpretation. Modeling is gaining importance in agronomic research in Slovenia, with many studies done in the recent decade and more underway.
Part of the book: Hydrology