In this chapter, we describe the prevalence, diagnostic methods, and treatment efficacy of compressive neuropathies of the median and the ulnar nerves in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Median neuropathy at the wrist is found in up to one-third of patients with DM, when demonstrated electrophysiologically, but is symptomatic as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a smaller proportion of these patients. It is clear that diabetes increases the risk of having clinical CTS. Diagnosis of CTS using nerve conduction studies is difficult in patients with DM and diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) as median nerve conduction studies are affected predominantly by the diabetes state. We will discuss different electrodiagnostic and ultrasonography techniques for diagnosis and the outcomes of carpal tunnel release decompressive surgery in this special patient population. It is controversial whether DM is a risk factor for cubital tunnel syndrome or ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) or at the wrist (UNW). In this chapter, we will review the ultrasonographic and electrophysiological diagnostic techniques used in UNE and UNW and the efficacy of cubital tunnel release in DM patients.
Part of the book: Peripheral Nerve Disorders and Treatment