Water must be made safe to drink, and an important step in ensuring water safety is disinfection. Disinfectants are added to water to kill disease-causing microorganisms. Ground water sources can be disinfected by “The Water Treatment Rule,” which requires public water systems for disinfection. Chlorination, ozone, ultraviolet light, and chloramines are primary methods for disinfection. However, potassium permanganate, photocatalytic disinfection, nanofiltration, and chlorine dioxide can also be used. Organic material is naturally present in water. Certain forms of chlorine can react with these organic materials and result in the formation of harmful by-products; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has anticipated maximum levels for these contaminants.
Part of the book: Photocatalysts