Water must be made safe to drink, and an important step in ensuring water safety is disinfection. Disinfectants are added to water to kill disease-causing microorganisms. Ground water sources can be disinfected by “The Water Treatment Rule,” which requires public water systems for disinfection. Chlorination, ozone, ultraviolet light, and chloramines are primary methods for disinfection. However, potassium permanganate, photocatalytic disinfection, nanofiltration, and chlorine dioxide can also be used. Organic material is naturally present in water. Certain forms of chlorine can react with these organic materials and result in the formation of harmful by-products; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has anticipated maximum levels for these contaminants.
Part of the book: Photocatalysts
In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, material characterization has been a focus of research as properties of the powder ingredients govern characteristics of the finished dosage form. It has been a tedious and time-consuming job to develop a correlation between the characteristics of powder material and final dosage form. Extensive experimentation is carried out at different stages of formulation development to optimize the final blend and produce a product fulfilling official requirements. Various approaches have been applied for the purpose with varying degree of applications. SeDeM-ODT expert system is a novel pre-formulation technique developed for characterization of powder material of varying nature. Experimental and quantitative determination of various parameters provides a basis for SeDeM-ODT expert system. The system predicts suitability of powder material (APIs and excipients) for tablet preparation by direct compression technology and disintegration behavior of the resultant dosage form. It provides a basis for selection of excipients, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The present study covers area of powder characterization at pre-formulation level of pharmaceutical product development. SeDeM-ODT expert system reduces lead time for pre-formulation studies and provides formulations with minimum number of excipients. SeDeM-ODT expert system has been successfully applied for material characterization (APIs and excipients) before processing and after processing.
Part of the book: Advanced Functional Materials