Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a renal dysfunction that occurs as a result of exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. It is a common problem in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and sepsis. Drugs can cause mild to moderate nephrotoxic problems such as intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, acid-base and fluid-electrolyte disturbances, alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, tubulointerstitial disease, and renal scarring leading to acute or chronic kidney injury. Therefore, early detection of adverse effects of drugs as well as the clinical history of the patient, basic renal functions, drug-related risk factors, and nephrotoxic drug combinations must be well known in order to prevent drug-induced nephrotoxicity and progression to end-stage renal disease.
Part of the book: Poisoning in the Modern World