During 2014–2017, a survey concerning risk factors for cervical cancer involving 1166 clinically healthy women and 65 having CaCx was conducted in Western Kazakhstan. Only 34.7% of interviewees constantly participated in state-sponsored screening program, while 37.3% ignored screening in free state-sponsored clinics. Favorable attitude toward vaccination stated 22.9% of the respondents, whereas 38.8% knew nothing, and 33.6% could not clarify their position in this issue. Education is a key factor for better perception of preventive measures—69.2% of the respondents with higher education are aware of vaccination (p ≤ 0.00001, Cramer’s V 0.18, χ2–23.1). Social profiles of HPV-infected and CaCx-diseased women differ significantly and, mainly, by standard of living and occupational status. The likelihood of the CaCx onset in Western Kazakhstan decreased by 14 times at relatively high standard of living (OR 0.0713, p = 0.024) and by 3.3 times provided at least irregular participation in screening (OR 0.3384, p = 0.0304). Overall, the findings are quite able to contribute to an understanding why women become affected by CaCx. Low standard of living due to lack of education, low attendance of screening, and low awareness on preventive measures‑all these reasons are interacted and constitute a set of universal triggers for vulnerability toward CaCx.
Part of the book: Current Perspectives in Human Papillomavirus