The problem of combination of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains urgent. Ninety percent of women with HIV infection are of childbearing age that results in increasing the number of children with HIV infection in perinatal contact. In Saint Petersburg from 2014 to 2017, about 5000 children were born from a perinatal contact for HIV infection; by 2017, more than 300 children have confirmed HIV infection. The comparative analysis of case histories of 25 children with TB/HIV combination and 50 children with tuberculosis without HIV infection was performed. Analysis of the study results showed that there are cases of late diagnosis of HIV infection. TB is detected clinically more frequently in children with HIV infection than in children without HIV infection (25 and 5%, respectively). More than one-third of the patients with coinfection had negative sensitivity to tuberculin and DST. The prevalence and the severity of TB in children with HIV infection correlates with the degree of immunosuppression. Eight percent of children had immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Treatment of patients with coinfection associated in most cases with the increased period of total treatment course. Four children with HIV infection vaccinated with BCG were diagnosed with generalized tuberculosis.
Part of the book: Advances in HIV and AIDS Control