Neurological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are common in certain regions of the world, notably Sub-Saharan Africa. The chapter highlights the neurotropism and neurovirulence of HIV underlying its direct neuropathology. The high frequency of neurological HIV disease is discussed in respect with the different viral clades. Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted as bearing the brunt of the HIV pandemic. An approach to neurological HIV disease is given with a sensible classification system of manifestations and complications according to the level of immune suppression, primary HIV-related versus secondary opportunistic conditions, and other metabolic, drug induced, nutritional, or unrelated causes. Major manifestations of neuro-HIV are aseptic meningitis, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, HIV myelopathies and pediatric HIV-associated CNS disease; these are discussed in detail, and reference is made to the discrepancy of available data and literature between the so-called developed and developing countries. The role of antiretroviral treatment and its potential limitation in reaching the CNS compartment is stressed.
Part of the book: Advances in HIV and AIDS Control