Amyloid diseases are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of proteinaceous aggregates (amyloid fibrils or plaques) in tissues and organs. This class of diseases is also characterized by the presence of inflammation. Amyloid fibrils arise from the partial denaturing and unfolding of native proteins. The accumulation of amyloid fibrils causes tissue damage and elicits local and nonlocal immune cell infiltration into tissue and proinflammatory cytokine production. Moreover, these conditions fuel a vicious cycle that can increase amyloid production and create an environment of chronic inflammation. A chronically inflamed tissue rapidly deteriorates and loses its function. In this chapter, we will discuss important data gathered over the years describing the role of inflammation in amyloid diseases. We will describe how inflammation begins and how it affects disease progression for major amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and hereditary TTR amyloidosis (hATTR). Lastly, we will discuss the recent advancements in treatments for amyloid diseases and how they address inflammation in affected patients.
Part of the book: Amyloid Diseases