Severe malaria presents with varied pathophysiological manifestations to include derangement in glucose homeostasis. The changes in glucose management by the infected human host emanate from both Plasmodium parasitic and host factors and/or influences which are aimed at creating a proliferative advantage to the parasite. This also includes morphological changes that that take place to both infected and uninfected cells as structural alterations occur on the cell membranes to allow for increased nutrients (glucose) transportation into the cells. Without the availability, effective and efficient intervention there is a high cost incurred by the human host. Hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia are critical aspects displayed in severe malaria. Conventional treatment to malaria renders itself hostile to the host with negative glucose metabolism changes experiences in the young, pregnant women and malaria naïve individuals. In malaria, therefore, host effects, parasite imperatives and treatment regimens play a pivotal role in the return to wellness of the patient. Phytotherapeutics are emerging as treatment alternatives that ameliorate glucose homeostasis alternations as well as combat malaria parasitaemia. The phytochemicals e.g. triterpenes, have been shown to alleviate the “disease” and “parasitic” aspects of malaria pointing at key aspects in ameliorating malaria glucose homeostasis fallings-out that are experienced in malaria.
Part of the book: Parasites and Parasitic Diseases
Malarial systemic pathophysiology refers to physiological changes or abnormalities that are experienced by individuals infected with the Plasmodium parasite not be presenting in the absence of active, chronic or previous infection. The pathologies are derived, in part, from OS induced insults whose mediators are readily available in malaria. The malaria disease is equivalent to the pathophysiology as shown by the abnormal syndromic expressions ranging from ailments that affect homeostatic mechanisms and processes to tissues and organ specific damages and derangements. Phytotherapeutic remedies refer to the natural phytochemicals or plant medicinal compounds and their derivatives with known antiparasitic and antimalarial disease effects in both experimental and clinical situations. The chapter explores how Plasmodium infection generates or cause to be generated oxidative stress, how oxidative stress drives systemic disease process and how phytotherapeutics treatment (artemisinins) and administration (asiatic acid) in malaria resolves the various pathologies as a current situational analysis.
Part of the book: Malaria