The cells of innate immunity, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), stuck to the bone implant walls release reactive radicals, enzymes, and chemokines, which induced subsequent bone loss. DCs do not play a big role in bone homeostasis in steady-state conditions, but could act as osteoclasts precursors in inflammation foci of bone. The potent antigen-presenting cells responsible for activation of native T cells and modulation of T cell activity through RANK/RANKL pathway and other cytokines associated with osteoclastogenesis determine critically situated at the osteoimmune interface. The titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg), the metallic candidate in implant, including calcium-phosphate coating formation on them by method plasma electrolytic oxidation were used to evaluate the immune-modulatory effects of DCs. The calcium-phosphate coating on metals induced mature DC (mDC) phenotype, while Ti and Mg promoted a noninflammatory environment by supporting an immature DC (iDC) phenotype based on surface marker expression, cytokine production profiles, and cell morphology. These findings have numerous therapeutic implications in addition to DC’s important role in regulating innate and adaptive immunity. A direct contribution of these cells to inflammation-induced bone loss establishes DC as a promising therapeutic target, not only for controlling inflammation but also for modulating bone destruction.
Part of the book: Dendritic Cells