Seismic modeling and Imaging for the small-scale feature in a complex subsurface geology such as salt deposit, fracture reservoir, and Carbonate is not casual because of propagated wave affected by many objects once it hits the geologic structure in the subsurface. The principal goal of newly developed seismic modeling & imaging is to get a subsurface image of structural features with greatest sharpness or resolution. Using model dataset the Sigsbee and Marmousi, we illustrate the accuracy of conventional and advance wave modeling techniques. However, in conventional a Finite difference (FD) algorithm is used to generate the data and in advanced wave modeling, the low-rank (LR) approximation is used to acquire zero-offset configuration data. A field dataset from Malaysian basin is re-processed and imaged using diffraction imaging which shows an enhancement in structural interpretation. Furthermore, the results gained from the proposed modeling and imaging approach significantly enhance the bandwidth of the imaged data. Finally, a frequency spectrum shows a recovery of low-frequency from 0 to 60 Hz which is an optimal resolution of seismic imaging.
Information about mechanical rock properties is essential when tight reservoir is to be stimulated using hydrofracturing technique. The brittle area has to be considered as a priority region for determining the location of hydrofracturing initiation. Seismic data are commonly used to estimate the geomechanical properties such as brittleness average from elastic properties: Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus. This paper discusses the process of brittleness estimation based on elastic properties, which can be derived by inverting the pre-stack seismic data that can produce acoustic impedance, shear impedance, and density simultaneously. Novel methods, scaled inverse quality factor of P-wave (SQp) and scaled inverse quality factor of S-wave (SQs) attributes, have been used for identification of brittleness, fracture density, and hydrocarbon bearing in the fractured basement reservoir. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been tested in the field, which is consistent with fracture density log from formation micro-imager (FMI) log and hydrocarbon column data. The result showed that there is a significant correlation between brittleness, estimated from elastic properties, and fracture density logs. New attributes, the SQp attribute is potentially to be used as a fracture density indicator, while SQs attribute indicates the existence of hydrocarbon, which is confirmed with neutron porosity-density logs.
Part of the book: Exploitation of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources