In this chapter, we will describe neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) as it develops and is treated in lupus patients, as well as means to study the disease using animal models. Based on mouse studies, we will discuss the correlation between inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and autoantibodies, and the development of neurological symptoms with specific emphasis on the evidence for systemic versus local effects. We will describe specifically the effect of these mediators on the blood-brain barrier, microglia cell function, and the immune system. In addition, we will summarize signs and symptoms in NPSLE patients, especially with respect to primary versus drug-induced neurological issues and current treatment strategies. The chapter will offer a comprehensive review of old and new studies in animal models and patient populations and offer insight into how these results align with current treatment strategies offered to patients.
Part of the book: Lupus