Almond (Prunus dulcis), a stone fruit belonging to a family Rosaceae (rose) is broadly cultivated for ornament and fruit. Within this genus, the almond is very much associated with the peach, and these two fruits share the same subgenus the Amygdalus. About 430 species are spread all through the northern temperate regions of the world. The Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East like Turkey and Pakistan eastward to Syria is native to the almond and its related species. Almond is one of the ancient fruit trees known to the Asian as well as European regions with the most primitive proof of cultivation dating about 2000 B.C. Prunus dulcis (Almond) is a nutrient-loaded nut crop. Almond possesses a great genetic diversity due to the genetically controlled self-incompatibility system which can be estimated by a morphological characteristic including molecular markers and isoenzymes with a wide range of marker techniques. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) involving RFLP or SNP are the most commonly used molecular techniques among the DNA-based molecular symbols. Particular agronomic characters, e.g. kernel bitterness or self-compatibility can also be traced by these molecular markers. The direct association between the level of diversity and the basis of the germplasm cannot be understood by the studies of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity cannot be seriously lost by self-compatibility in almonds. The breeding, conservation, and cultivation of wild-growing almonds may similarly advantageous after the genetic diversity research studies (especially those applying molecular markers).
Part of the book: Prunus
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine issue described by unpredictable menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries (PCO). The commonness of PCOS changes relying upon which measures are utilized to conclude yet is just about as high as 15–20% when the European culture for human propagation and embryology/American culture for regenerative medication rules are utilized. Clinical signs incorporated grown-ups incorporate sort 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Insulin opposition influences half 70% of ladies with PCOS prompting a few comorbidities including metabolic condition, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose narrow-mindedness, and diabetes. Studies show that ladies with PCOS are bound to have expanded coronary corridor calcium scores and expanded carotid intima-media thickness. Psychological wellness problems including despondency, uneasiness, bipolar turmoil, and voraciously consuming food issues additionally happen all the more habitually in ladies with PCOS. Weight reduction works on feminine abnormalities, indications of androgen abundance, and barrenness the board of clinical appearances of PCOS incorporates oral contraceptives for feminine inconsistencies and hirsutism. Spironolactone and finasteride are utilized to treat indications of androgen overabundance.
Part of the book: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
The COVID-19 pandemic’s epidemiological and clinical characteristics have been affected in recent months by the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 variants with unique spikes of protein alterations. These variations can lessen the protection provided by suppressing monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, as well as enhance the frequencies of transmission of the virus and/or the risk of contracting the disease. Due to these mutations, SARS-CoV-2 may be able to proliferate despite increasing levels of vaccination coverage while preserving and enhancing its reproduction efficiency. This is one of the main strategies in tackling the COVID-19 epidemics, the accessibility of precise and trustworthy biomarkers for the SARS-CoV-2 genetic material and also its nucleic acids is important to investigate the disease in suspect communities, start making diagnoses and management in symptomatic or asymptomatic persons, and evaluate authorization of the pathogen after infection. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for virus nucleic acid identification is still the most effective method for such uses due to its sensitivity, quickness, high-throughput sequencing capacity, and trustworthiness. It is essential to update the primer and probe sequences to maintain the recognition of recently emerging variations. Concerning viral variations could develop that are dangerously resistant to the immunization induced by the present vaccinations in coronavirus disease 2019. Additionally, the significance of effective public health interventions and vaccination programs will grow if some variations of concern exhibit an increased risk of transmission or toxicity. The international reaction must’ve been immediate and established in science. These results supported ongoing efforts to prevent and identify infection, as well as to describe mutations in vaccine recipients, and they suggest a potential risk of illness following effective immunization and transmission of pathogens with a mutant viral.
Part of the book: Current Topics in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
Petroleum and oil industry is a rich source of nonrenewable energy that ultimately results in threatening of ecosystem due to emission of greenhouse gases into the environment. In the current panorama of the energy demand, industries focus on alternate and renewable energy resources to meet energy gaps. Thus, an expedient fuel cell based on microbes can be valued as an economical and ecofriendly substitute of energy generator. These microbial fuel cells have commercialized platinum electrodes to generate cost-effective energy after oxidation of organic wastes catalyzed by biocatalyst. Nowadays, conventional carbon electrode as an anode is taking popularity in microbial fuel cell but displays poor performance. So, to improve the chemistry of electrodes, nano-composites fabricated from polar polymeric material as well as cost-effective oxides of metals are the raw material. In this chapter, green synthesis of nano-composites from conducting polymers and oxides of transition metals has been discussed. Anode modification by composite to treat wastewater as well as its role to generate electricity has been discussed briefly.
Part of the book: Gold Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Engineering