Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by complete cessation of upper airflow during sleep, leading to repetitive episodes of desaturations and arousals. The symptoms include excessive daytime somnolence and are associated with a significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of OSA is higher in men with an approximate rate of 14 and 5% in women respectively. Typical risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea in the normal adult population are obesity, aging, gender, menopause, ethnicity, genetical predisposition, craniofacial anatomy, smoking, alcohol consumption and some other factors such as REM sleep, surface tension, and impaired sensory processing. Several screening questionnaires can be performed in outpatient settings to identify the patient symptoms. Polysomnography is considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of OSA. Different surgical treatments and devices are readily available for an effective management of this disease. Proper diagnosis and treatment improves not only the quality of life but also relatively decreases patient morbidity and mortality. A multifaceted approach is necessary for an accurate management of the OSA.
Part of the book: Noninvasive Ventilation in Medicine