Hypersaline environments are those with salt concentrations 9–10 times higher (30–35% of NaCl) than sea water (3.5% of NaCl). At high concentrations of soluble salts, cytoplasm—mainly of bacteria and archaea—is exposed to high ionic strength and achieves osmotic equilibrium by maintaining a cytoplasmic salt concentration similar to that of the surrounding media. Halophilic enzymes are extremozymes produced by halophilic microorganisms; they have similar characteristics to regular enzymes but different properties, mainly structural. Among these properties is a high requirement of salt for biological functions. Furthermore, the discovery of enzymes capable of degrading biopolymers offer a new perspective in the treatment of residues from oil deposits, under typically high conditions of salt and temperature, while giving valuable information on heterotrophic processes in saline environments.
Part of the book: Kinetics of Enzymatic Synthesis
Anthocyanins are the most important group of water-soluble compounds responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors seen in flowers, fruits, and other parts of the plant. For centuries, these compounds have been consumed by man without obvious detrimental effects due to their bright colors and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins are an important alternative for synthetic food colorings that have been banned in foods, because they have been associated with certain diseases. Anthocyanins can be extracted from different plant tissues; the usual method of obtaining is solid-liquid extraction. However, it is worth mentioning the existence of other methods. Thus, Japanese scientists developed an alternative methodology that consists of extracting anthocyanins by fermenting the matrices that contain them. The stability of anthocyanins in processed products has been studied, and it has been shown that certain acid anthocyanins are stable after extraction. Anthocyanins are antioxidants that play an important role in reducing the risks of several human degenerative diseases.
Part of the book: Flavonoids