Upon neoplastic transformation, melanoma is intrinsically prone to metastasis, which marks the most dangerous aspect of the disease and dubs it one of the most challenging cancers to treat. BRAF/MEK oncokinase inhibitors and immunotherapies have shown considerable promise in some patients, but the clinical benefits are often short-lived due to rapid development of resistance. Recently, ubiquitination enzymes have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. These enzymes can be targeted to increase expression of tumor suppressors and impede activation of oncogenic signaling pathways mediating cell proliferation and tissue invasion. This chapter describes some of the common genetic mutations in melanoma, ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes that are linked to melanoma progression, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance.
Part of the book: Cancer Metastasis