Glioma surgery has been the main component of glioma treatment for decades. The surgical approach changed over time, making it more complex and more challenging. With molecular knowledge and diagnostic improvement, this challenge became maximally safe resection of tumor, which resulted in prolonged overall survival, progression-free period, and a better quality of life. Today, the standard glioma treatment includes maximally safe resection, if feasible, administration of temozolomide, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Surgical resection is performed as subtotal resection, gross total resection, and supratotal resection. Subtotal resection is the resection where a part of tumor is left. Gross total resection is a complete removal of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visible tumor tissue. Supratotal resection is performed as gross total resection with excising the MRI visible tumor tissue borders into the unaffected brain tissue. Before we make final decision on which type of resection should be performed, many factors have to be considered. The main question has to be answered: what the actual impact of resection on the progression of glioma is and what the functional risk of resection is.
Part of the book: Glioma
The small intestine is a challenging organ for clinical and radiological evaluation. The introduction of radiological imaging techniques, which do not significantly disturb patients’ comfort and safety, attempts to obtain an adequate diagnosis and valuable information. The aim is to determine the capabilities and potential of ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) enterography to establish the diagnosis and to evaluate the severity and activity of intestinal inflammation. Conventional ultrasound is a suitable orientation method in the initial evaluation of patients with Crohn’s disease. At the same time, contrast-enhanced MR enterography provides an excellent assessment of disease activity, as well as the complications that accompany it. Contrast-enhanced MR enterography, combined with DWI, allows for excellent evaluation of disease activity and problems or difficulties following it. The examination can be repeated, controlled and can monitor patients with this disease.
Part of the book: Endoscopy in Small Bowel Diseases