Precipitation-hardening behavior of various medium carbon bainitic steels with added elements of Nb, Ti and V was systematically investigated. Complex nanocarbides composed of Nb, Ti and V precipitated after aging in the steel with multiple additions of all the elements, whereas those with added individual elements were simple MC types. The amount of precipitation hardening (ΔHv) after aging at 873 K of the former steel was approximately 90 ΔHv, while those of the latter were less than 40 ΔHv at best. Therefore, significant precipitation hardening took place by multiple element addition. The different amount of precipitation hardening depending on added elements was reasonably understood by considering misfit parameters between carbides and ferrite matrix.
Part of the book: New Uses of Micro and Nanomaterials