Multinational corporations have commenced foreign direct investment (FDI) activities since the 1960s by moving operations to resource-rich, low-cost labour and capital markets. Successive waves of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) since the 1960s and 1970s were motivated by efficiency and market-seeking factors. Since the 1990s, China, Brazil, India, Russia (the so-called BRIC countries), Malaysia, Turkey and South Africa are among the countries expected to add significantly to OFDI growth. The emergence of Emerging Market Transnational Corporations (EMTNCs) makes up a growing proportion of outward FDI, and they acquire an increasing share in foreign affiliates from developed markets conducting business in their regions. This chapter reflects on the transformation of businesses and business practice in Africa, from isolated peripheral actors to global players. This chapter investigates the history of leading emerging market multinational corporations from Africa since the 1980s and points to the implications for future globalisation of EMTNCs.
Part of the book: Globalization