The fundamental understanding of cryobiology through experimentation in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s has led to the development of today’s vitrification technology. Although human embryo and oocyte vitrification was slow to evolve, it has become an invaluable technology in the field of reproductive medicine. The aim of this chapter is to discuss some of the underlying basic principles behind forming a metastable glass phase during rapid cooling in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and the prevention of recrystallization events upon warming. We then highlight how this understanding has led to its highly effective and reliable usage in clinical IVF. Furthermore, we describe how quality control factors (e.g., ease of use, repeatability, reliability, labeling security, and cryostorage safety) can vary between vitrification device systems, potentially influencing clinical outcomes and creating possible liability issues. An open-minded approach to continued experimentation is a necessity, especially pertaining to oocyte freeze preservation, if we are to optimize the vitrification of reproductive cells and tissue in the future.
Part of the book: Cryopreservation Biotechnology in Biomedical and Biological Sciences
Over the past decade, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used in several fields of medicine to promote cell growth and expedite wound healing for the treatment of arthritis, nerve injury, tendinitis, bone regeneration, cardiac muscle repair, and oral & plastic surgery. Recently, researchers have been applying autologous PRP to bolster the growth of endometrial lining in patients with a history of endometrium-related failed embryo transfers. Evidence reveals that PRP is a rich source of active cytokines and various growth factors, which come from an autologous source that can be easily attained from peripheral blood without risk of disease transmission to the patient. In this review, several studies were analyzed that involved patients 18–42 years of age undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in preparation for embryo transfer and serial transvaginal ultrasound in conjunction with PRP infusions into the endometrium via an intrauterine insemination (IUI) catheter. Exclusion criteria included patients with endometritis, polyps, or adhesions. Embryo transfers (ET) were performed when the endometrial lining achieved a thickness of >7 mm. The database indicates that PRP infusion therapy is a promising low-cost treatment for HRT patients that significantly increases endometrial thickness and improves pregnancy success in a previous suboptimal ET patient population.
Part of the book: Innovations In Assisted Reproduction Technology