Irrigated paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for roughly half of the world’s population. Concerns over water quality have arisen in recent decades, particularly in China, which is the largest rice-producing country in the world and has the most intensive use of nutrients and water in rice production. On the one hand, the poor water quality has constrained the use of water for irrigation to paddy systems in many areas of the world. On the other hand, nutrient losses from paddy production systems contribute to contamination and eutrophication of freshwater bodies. Here, we review rice production, water requirement, water quality issues, and management options to minimize nutrient losses from paddy systems. We conclude that management of nutrient source, rate, timing, and placement should be combined with the management of irrigation and drainage water to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from paddies. More research is needed to identify cost-effective monitoring approaches and mitigation options, and relevant extension and policy should be enforced to achieve water quality goals. The review is preliminarily based on China’s scenario, but it would also provide valuable information for other rice-producing countries.
Part of the book: Irrigation in Agroecosystems
Many tree species worldwide are suitable for making biochar (BC), with planted eucalypts in particular being very productive and extensive. Above- and below-ground carbon sequestration by Eucalyptus plantations depends on plantation management options. An intensively managed cultivar could sequester over 100 mt of C/ha at a cost of $21–40/mt. BC production systems ranging in size from small mobile units to large centralized facilities and many kiln technologies influence the quality and price of the BC produced as well as the ability to control emissions. While BC from wood has many applications, its use as a soil amendment in forest plantations is appealing as a long-term sequestration strategy and opportunity to grow more robust trees and increase survival rates. Research in Florida USA and elsewhere addresses responses of forest and agronomic crops to wood BC soil amendments with and without other fertilizers. In combination with the carbon sequestered through tree growth, sequestration of 2.5 mt/ha of wood BC as a soil amendment in Eucalyptus plantations has estimated costs ranging from $3.30–5.49/ton of C.
Part of the book: Applications of Biochar for Environmental Safety