This chapter will review (p × n)-type transverse thermoelectrics (TTE). Starting with the device advantages of single-leg (p × n)-type TTE’s over other thermoelectric paradigms, the theory of (p × n)-type TTE materials is given. Then, the figure of merit, transport equations, and thermoelectric tensors are derived for an anisotropic effective-mass model in bulk three-dimensional materials (3D), quasi-two-dimensional (2D), and quasi-one-dimensional (1D) materials. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the cooling power for transverse thermoelectrics in terms of universal heat flux and electric field scales. The importance of anisotropic ambipolar conductivity for (p × n)-type TTEs highlights the need to explore noncubic, narrow-gap semiconductor or semimetallic candidate materials.
Part of the book: Bringing Thermoelectricity into Reality