Neglected tropical diseases are a group of infectious diseases caused by infectious and parasitic agents that occur in a large part of the world affecting millions of people and can complicate matters with serious organ damage. The kidneys can be affected in many of these diseases, including Chagas disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, and schistosomiasis. In this chapter, we describe the mechanisms by which the kidneys are damaged in the setting of these diseases, the clinical manifestations, and the current available treatment options. We also describe the recent novel biomarkers that are under investigation for the early diagnosis of kidney injury in the course of these diseases and the future perspectives.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Tropical Emerging Diseases and Travel Medicine
Cardiac cysticercosis is a rare infection and its diagnosis is usually incidental, as most patients are asymptomatic. Laboratory and imaging tests, such as echocardiogram and cardiac nuclear magnetic resonance, can also be used in the diagnostic approach. The clinical manifestations are broad and patients can present with symptoms that range from heart failure to arrhythmias. Treatment of this condition has been scarcely studied and no protocols have been well established to date. One can choose not to treat the asymptomatic cases or to use cestocides, in the case of symptomatic individuals. Patient monitoring through cardiac enzymes and electrocardiogram during treatment is recommended, as well as performing imaging tests after treatment. This chapter aims to discuss cardiac cysticercosis, divided into sessions that will cover everything from its epidemiology and clinical aspects to diagnostic methods, therapeutics and treatment monitoring, with emphasis on the most current aspects.
Part of the book: Current State of the Art in Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis