The prevalence of conditions that eventually result in poor wound healing abounds as humans advance in age. With the increased possibility of wounds not healing comes a leap in morbidity and mortality with its accompanying socioeconomic impact. It is therefore relevant to understand what accounts for aberrant wound healing and more importantly the molecular markers involved in this pathological state. There are known events associated with the wound healing process, spanning from cellular involvement to the role of specific proteins such as cytokines and growth factors that are significant biomarkers in the wound healing process. This chapter discusses biomarkers relevant to the wound healing process, and these biomarkers go a long way to help identify and stratify nonhealing patients for whom biomarker-guided approaches may be of importance clinically in their management.
Part of the book: Wound Healing
The surge in antimicrobial resistance coupled with the decline in the antimicrobial drug pipeline calls for the discovery and development of new agents to tackle antibiotic resistance and prevent a return to a post-antibiotic era. Several factors account for resistance of microbes; some are natural and others are acquired. Natural selection, presence of efflux pumps, impermeable cell wall, biofilm formation and quorum sensing are some of the factors. Though it is difficult to outwit the pathogens, the discovery and development of compounds with pleiotropic modes or mechanisms of action different from the conventional drugs currently being used can help us tackle antimicrobial resistance. Natural products have been known to be a rich source of bioactive compounds with diverse structures and functional group chirality. Various reports indicate medicinal plants with antibacterial, anti-biofilm, efflux pump inhibition, wound healing effects or properties and others used for upper respiratory and urinary tract infections. There is an urgent need to research into natural products particularly plants for antimicrobial agents including antibacterial agents, anti-biofilm agents, antibacterial natural compounds and antibacterial chemicals. This chapter throws more light on such antimicrobials.
Until the 1980s surgery remained the only treatment option for cystic echinococcosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with tapeworms of the genus Echinocococcus. Following the development of the benzmidazoles, there has been an increase in the use of chemotherapy over the years, especially as an adjunct to surgery or in the management of inoperable cysts. In spite of their usefulness, both surgery and chemotherapy are associated with significant limitations that warrants the search for or consideration of alternative treatment options such natural products. This chapter aims to discuss the scolicidal activity of different species of medicinal plants and their active metabolites in the treatment of echinococcosis. Excerpta Medica Database, Google Scholar, PubMed Central and Scopus were electronic databases used to retrieve the relevant literature. Medicinal plants used commonly and effectively against protoscoleces were Zataria multiflora, Nigella sativa, Berberis vulgaris, Zingiber officinale, and Allium sativum. Only Z. multiflora and A. sativum were shown to effective against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vivo. In addition, these natural products have not been associated with any significant adverse effect. In animal models Thus, natural products with demonstrated activity against E. granulosus may serve as alternative therapy in the management of echinococcosis.
Part of the book: Echinococcosis