Single-phase motors are widely used in household applications. Shaded-pole and split-phase capacitor-start single-phase induction motors are very popular for their ruggedness and their comparatively low cost. Recently, line-start single-phase motors are gaining market shares. However, their superior efficiency and torque density are counterbalanced by the higher cost of the rotor construction due to the magnets. This chapter compares the main structures of single-phase line-start motors, presenting their lumped parameter models and the finite element analysis. The equivalent circuits of the single-phase induction motor and of the line-start permanent magnet are derived. Different rotor structures for single-phase line-start permanent magnet (PM) motors are compared. The finite element method (FEM) is used to compare the characteristics of the motors. Motors with the same stator have been tested. No-load and load tests have been performed and compared to the FEM simulations and to the analytical model. Finally, the performances of line-start PM motors are compared to the shaded-pole induction motors in terms of torque density and efficiency.
Part of the book: Electric Machines for Smart Grids Applications