Nowadays transcatheter device closure of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) is an attractive and feasible alternative to surgical closure of congenital VSDs. Isolated congenital VSDs constitute the most common form of congenital heart disease (CHD) in infants and children and account for 20–30% of all types of cardiac malformations. Most of the VSDs are located in the membranous portion of the ventricular septum (perimembranous VSDs). There are also less common types of VSDs located in the muscular portion (muscular VSDs), below the pulmonary valve (subpulmonary or supracristal VSDs), and near the junction of the tricuspid and mitral valves (inlet type VSDs). Indications for closure of VSDs include a hemodynamically significant left to right shunt and prevention of long-term complications, including pulmonary hypertension, progressive ventricular dilatation, aortic insufficiency, double-chambered right ventricle, and endocarditis. In this chapter, we review the technical details for achieving a successful procedure, as well as some tips and tricks on using off-label devices during transcatheter approach in VSD closure.
Part of the book: Angiography