Steel frame structures are often used in the construction of public and industrial buildings. They are used for all types of slope roofs; walls of newly built public and industrial buildings; load bearing structures; and roofs of renovated buildings. The process of assembling buildings from steel frame structures should be analysed as an integrated process influenced by factors such as construction materials and machinery used, the qualification level of construction workers, complexity of work, and available finance. It is necessary to find a rational technological design solution for assembling buildings from steel frame structures by conducting a multiple criteria analysis. The analysis provides a possibility to evaluate the engineering considerations and find unequivocal solutions. The rational alternative of a complex process of assembling buildings from steel frame structures was found through multiple criteria analysis and multiple criteria evaluation. In multiple criteria, evaluation of technological solutions for assembling buildings from steel frame structures by pairwise comparison method the criteria by significance are distributed as follows: durability is the most important criterion in the evaluation of alternatives; the price of a part of assembly process; construction workers’ qualification level (category); mechanisation level of a part of assembling process; and complexity of assembling work are less important criteria.
Part of the book: Applications of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 61 requires all new public buildings to become near-zero-energy buildings by 2019 which will be extended to all new buildings by 2021. This concept involves sustainable, high-quality, valuable, healthy and durable construction. Foundation, walls and roofs are the most essential elements of a house. The type of foundation for a private house is selected considering many factors. The article examines technological and structural solutions for passive building foundation, walls and roofs. The technical-economic comparison of the main structures of a passive house revealed that it is cheaper to install an adequately designed concrete slab foundation than to build strip or pile foundation and the floor separately. Timber stud walls are the cheapest wall option for a passive house and 45–51% cheaper than other options. The comparison of roofs and ceilings showed that insulation of the ceiling is 25% more efficient than insulation of the roof. The comparison of the main envelope element efficiency by multiple-criteria evaluation methods showed that it is economically feasible to install concrete slab on ground foundation, stud walls with sheet cladding and a pitched roof with insulated ceiling.
Part of the book: Zero and Net Zero Energy