Regulation of gene expression is achieved by the presence of cis regulatory elements; these signatures are interspersed in the noncoding region and also situated in the coding region of the genome. These elements orchestrate the gene expression process by regulating the different steps involved in the flow of genetic information. Transcription (DNA to RNA) and translation (RNA to Protein) are controlled at different levels by different regulatory elements present in the genome. Current chapter describes the structural and functional elements present in the coding and noncoding region of the genome. Further we discuss role of regulatory elements in regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Finally, we also discuss DNA structural properties of regulatory regions and their role in gene expression. Identification and characterization of cis regulatory elements would be useful to engineer the regulation of gene expression.
Part of the book: Bioinformatics in the Era of Post Genomics and Big Data