There is an increasing demand for advancing conventional desalination technologies and developing novel solar powered desalination processes. In this chapter, the use of solar powered thermal desalination will be discussed comprehensively. The different existing methods of solar energy utilization for seawater desalination will be discussed, which includes solar stills, solar powered humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination, solar diffusion driven desalination, solar membrane distillation, concentrated solar power (CSP) based desalination, and solar pond distillation. The advantages and limitations of these thermal desalination technology will be discussed. In addition, the environmental impacts of solar desalination will be discussed due to its importance for adoption.
Part of the book: Desalination and Water Treatment
Petroleum industry is one of the major industries serving the energy demands. Flow assurance is essential for providing continuous fuel supply. Wax deposition is the main issue that affects flow assurance or reduces the efficiency of transporting crude oil. As the maintenance cost of repairing and troubleshooting is very high, addressing issues related to flow assurance becomes critical in the petroleum industry. This chapter will explore methods used for reducing, cleaning, and monitoring deposition of wax. Wax dissolved in the crude oil gets crystallized causing accumulation across the pipe walls once the bulk temperature of the crude oil gets lower than wax appearance temperature (WAT). Mechanical, thermal, chemical, and microbial methods highlighting general practice in the industry are discussed in this chapter. Next, the direct techniques providing information about the numerical wax deposition models used along with scientific measurement techniques are emphasized. Later, the indirect measurement techniques are discussed providing information about the external probing and nondestructive techniques to obtain information about wax layer deposition inside the pipe. The role of artificial intelligence and use of fuzzy logic for effective wax prediction or in developing the existing wax numerical models are emphasized in the last section.
Part of the book: Intelligent System and Computing