Although doped graphene based materials have been intensively investigated, as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), there is still a number of challenges to be explored in order to design a highly active, durable, thermodynamically stable and low-cost catalyst with full recognized technological importance. The application of iodine-doped graphene in fuel cells (FC) has been recently examined as innovative nanomaterial for cathode fabrication. Up to date microscopic and spectroscopic techniques have been combined with structural and electrochemical investigations for a compendious characterization of developed ORR catalysts. The unique structure of doped graphenes is ascertained by the presence of mesopores, vacancies and high surface area, and favors the ions/electrons transportation at nanometric scale. The chapter discusses (a) how to use the existing knowledge in respect to synthesized doped graphenes and (b) how to improve the FC by taking into account these materials and have an enhanced electrochemical performance as well as long-term durability.
Part of the book: Advances In Hydrogen Generation Technologies
Metal-dispersed nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide as catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) demonstrate promising applications in the energy sector. The catalyst activity enhancement and stability improvement investigated in this study are mandatory steps in obtaining feasible electrodes for PEMFC. The chapter deals with the synthesis of noble metal catalysts including platinum and gold nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (PtNPs/rGO and AuNPs/rGrO). The understanding of the correlations between the electrochemical activity on one side and the structure, composition and synthesis method on the other side are provided. Facile routes in order to prepare the well dispersed PtNPs/rGO and AuNPs/rGrO are included. The structure and morphology were characterized by different techniques, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), specific surface area measurements. In this context we report a hybrid derived electrocatalyst with increased electrochemical active area and enhanced mass-transport properties. The electrochemical performances of PtNPs/rGO and AuNPs/rGrO were tested and compared with a standard PEMFC configuration. The performed electrochemical characterization recommends the prepared materials as ORR electrocatalysts for the further fabrication of cathodes for PEM fuel cells. The research directions as well as perspectives on the subsequent development of more active and less expensive electrocatalysts are established.
Part of the book: Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Evolution
Lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO3) perovskite-type oxide is an important conductive ceramic material finding a broad range of technical applications. Physical and chemical properties of the final lanthanum cobalt oxide powder material obtained are strongly dependent on the method of preparation. Taking in account these considerations, we focus our investigation on the solid state reaction process. The characterization of prepared lanthanum cobalt oxide material was studied by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), and conduction properties. Following the experimental results, it can be concluded that with proper improvement, the solid state reaction process may also provide an efficient preparation method for perovskite-type LaCoO3 powder. Important to mention is that we looked into the aspects to produce again same which showed consistently reproducibility of batch to batch powder properties. This is a key factor to overcome a successful commercialization of new material synthesis development.
Part of the book: Cobalt Compounds and Applications
The role of energy in modern society is fundamental. Constraints due to the emissions of air pollutants from the excessive use of fossil fuels have increased dramatically in the last years. Over the years various devices and systems have been developed to transform energy from forms supplied by nature to forms that can be used by people. Another issue is to absorb energy generated at one time and to discharge it to supply power at a later time, what is called energy storage. This is also a matter to focus when it comes to searching for solutions of energy problems. Perovskites are promising key materials for energy applications, and in this chapter is a literature review summarizing the reported progress in energy applications of perovskite-type ceramic materials. To understand the fundamental nature of structure–property relationships, defect chemistry plays an important role. This paper, a mini-review, briefly describes from available literature and summarizes accordingly. It is focused on perovskite crystal structures, perovskite materials for solid oxide fuel cells, perovskite electrocatalyst and photocatalysts, and perovskite transport features.
Part of the book: Perovskite Materials, Devices and Integration