This chapter aims to highlight the main types of infections in the ICU, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management. Risk factors for patients hospitalised in the ICU will be raised: the increasing use of invasive devices and procedures, aggressive antimicrobial therapies, surgical interventions, immunosuppressive treatments or co-morbidities responsible for immune deficiencies. Starting from the rising mortality risk among patients with hospital-acquired infections (HAI), in the case of failure to control the pathogen in the first 24–48 h, we will tackle about the prevention, reduction and control of the emergence of resistant pathogens. The rational administration of antibiotics will also be addressed, with the aim of reducing adverse reactions, including secondary infections, decreasing the mortality rate, length of hospital stay and costs of health care.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Intensive Care Medicine