This chapter describes the history and development strategy of piezoelectric materials for medical applications. It covers the piezoelectric properties of materials found inside the human body including blood vessels, skin, and bones as well as how the piezoelectricity innate in those materials aids in disease treatment. It also covers piezoelectric materials and their use in medical implants by explaining how piezoelectric materials can be used as sensors and can emulate natural materials. Finally, the possibility of using piezoelectric materials to design medical equipment and how current models can be improved by further research is explored. This review is intended to provide greater understanding of how important piezoelectricity is to the medical industry by describing the challenges and opportunities regarding its future development.
Part of the book: Piezoelectricity
Bodily movements can be used to harvest electrical energy via nanogenerators and thereby enable self-powered healthcare devices. In this chapter, first we summarize the requirements of nanogenerators for the applications in biomedical fields. Then, the current applications of nanogenerators in the biomedical field are introduced, including self-powered sensors for monitoring body activities; pacemakers; cochlear implants; stimulators for cells, tissues, and the brain; and degradable electronics. Remaining challenges to be solved in this field and future development directions are then discussed, such as increasing output performance, further miniaturization, encapsulation, and improving stability. Finally, future outlooks for nanogenerators in healthcare electronics are reviewed.
Part of the book: Nanogenerators