During the last 20 years, new data on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying different types of cognitive activity, especially speech and its ontogenetic formation, were obtained in the Laboratory of Children’s Neurophysiology headed by Prof. M.N. Tsitseroshin. Using the analysis of the spatial-temporal structure of regional interactions of cortical bioelectric potentials (so-called functional connectivity), we investigated how specific language levels, such as phonology, grammar, and semantics, are represented in the brain. The data obtained in children vs. adults indicate that the speech perception and production require joint and extremely coordinated activities of both hemispheres, along with the obligatory and differentiated involvement of “classic” speech centers in the left hemisphere, especially Wernicke’s area. Another line of our research is to explore the differences, which arise during verbal processing in adults and children with impaired vs. non-impaired speech, particularly with alalia, dysarthria and stuttering, using behavioral and EEG data. Our data obtained in children vs. adults allow assessing the degree of maturity in the organization of the central processes of maintaining the studied types of verbal activity in children of different ages. These data allow expanding modern concepts about the brain mechanisms of verbal activity in children in the norm and pathology.
Part of the book: Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry