Nanophotonics involves the study of the behavior of light on nanometer scale. Modern nanoscale semiconductor photodetectors are important building blocks for high-speed optical communications. In this chapter, we review the state-of-the-art 2.5G, 10G, and 25G avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that are available in commercial applications. We discuss the key device parameters, including avalanche breakdown voltage, dark current, temperature dependence, bandwidth, and sensitivity. We also present reliability analysis on wear-out degradation and optical/electrical overload stress. We discuss the reliability challenges of nanoscale photodetectors associated with device miniaturization for the future. The reliability aspects in terms of high electric field, Joule heating, and geometry inhomogeneity are highlighted.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials for Photodetector