Mycobacterium bovis is the main causal agent of bovine tuberculosis that causes zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. The most common routes of transmission of the agent to human are airborne transmission, consumption of unpasteurized milk, direct contact with infected animals or untreated animal products. Conventional diagnostic methods in combination with modern molecular and immunological techniques should be used for early and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Some of the challenges to tackle and eradicate zoonotic TB in developing countries are having many hosts, absence of early diagnosis, presence of other acute diseases, being economically unable to implement control strategies, and other social and cultural issues. Usually treatment is not recommended in animals but vaccination is carried out in some countries as a preventive measure. Due to the grave consequences of M. bovis infection on animal and human health, it is necessary to introduce accurate control measures to reduce the risk of disease in human and animal populations. Proper food hygiene practices, slaughter of the affected animals in developed countries, and segregation of the suspected animals in developing countries along with stronger intersectoral collaboration between the veterinary and medical professions are important for the control of the disease.
Part of the book: Basic Biology and Applications of Actinobacteria