Heteroatom (metal and nonmetal) doping is essential to achieve excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of carbon materials. Among the heteroatoms that have been studied to date, sulfur (S) doping, including metal sulfides and sulfur atoms, has attracted tremendous attention. Since S-doping can modify spin density distributions around the metal centers as well as the synergistic effect between S and other doped heteroatoms, the S-C bond and metal sulfides can function as important ORR active sites. Furthermore, the S-doped hybrid sample shows a small charge-transfer resistance. Therefore, S-doping contributes to the superior ORR performance. This chapter describes the recent advancements of S-doped carbon materials, and their development in the area of ORR with regard to components, structures, and their ORR activities of S-related species.
Part of the book: Chalcogen Chemistry