In recent years, there has been a growing interest in utilizing inorganic membranes, particularly alumina (Al2O3) ceramic membranes (CMs), and to address a variety of separation problems in miscellaneous industry. Al2O3 membranes are commercially predominant in CMs market. Al2O3 material is generally used either as membrane support and/or as membrane layer due to advantages provided by this material and its derivatives such as availability in tonnage quantities, chemical inertness, good hardness, and thermal stability of the porous texture during elaboration steps. In this chapter, we comprehensibly look at the recent studies related to desalination and water treatment by ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) Al2O3 membrane, and highlight the separation properties of the membrane in specific environmental pollution. The influences of membrane operating conditions and water quality on the rejection of pollutant by Al2O3 membrane are reported through a series of bench-level experiments.
Part of the book: Desalination and Water Treatment
One of the most important challenges facing humanity today is to conserve and sustain water resources (either surface water or groundwater). This challenge became more pronounced with the increase of urban, agricultural, and industrial activities that discharge a considerable amount of wastewater. Therefore, the preservation of water sources from pollutants is a major concern, shared by all, public, industrial, scientific, researchers, and decision-makers. This chapter analyzes in more detail the pollution and pollutants caused by agricultural and industrial activities. Particular attention is given to pollution via nitrogen and heavy metals (NO3−, Cr(VI), and Cu(II)) in either international or national level. The effect of these pollutants on human health and environment, their standards/regulations, and the different current methods used for their detection and treatment are all discussed in the chapter.
Part of the book: Water Chemistry