Part of the book: Practical Applications and Solutions Using LabVIEW™ Software
Conceptual mapping of existing knowledge on previous subject learned with the new knowledge can be accentuated using experiential learning methodologies. Open-ended laboratory (OEL) initiative exemplifies the intended outcome of experiential learning cycle where the learners encounter new experiences via laboratory experiments, reflecting the observation made interconnecting the inconsistencies between experience and understanding. This provides a solid basis for the learners to create or modify existing abstract concept of the experiments undertaken. These experiences will be put into context where the learners actively and adaptively experimenting and integrating previous knowledge with the new knowledge and put into practice by developing appropriate experimental procedures in order to achieve the set objectives given for a particular problem statement. This chapter illustrates the concept of open-ended laboratory (problem based), describing the transition of traditional laboratory (TL) to problem-based learning experience via experiential learning methodologies. The methodologies in developing the OEL in a chemical engineering laboratory course and their implementation in a process control laboratory setup were also outlined. The transition of traditional to problem-based findings and course outcomes attainments were investigated and measured using appropriate tools. The challenges and difficulties in implementing OEL were described and analyzed with data obtained from the experiences of conducting OEL in the School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Isoamyl acetate is an organic compound which is mainly used as flavor additive in food industries. Traditionally, the food flavor has been produced by extraction from plants, followed by chemical synthesis route which then shifted to biocatalytic route due to consumer’s awareness and inclination toward natural products. This study was carried out to examine the reaction synthesis between acetic anhydride and isoamyl alcohol in the presence of Candida antarctica Lipase-B (CALB) as a catalyst in solvent-free system (SFS). Results show that two reactions took place between acetic anhydride and isoamyl alcohol. The effect of different reaction parameters on the final yield of isoamyl acetate and the optimization of process parameters using a statistical tool were also investigated with response surface methodology (RSM). It was found that the optimum isoamyl acetate yield is at reaction temperature 30°C, acid/alcohol molar ratio 0.10, and enzyme loading 4.14%. The regression coefficient for optimization based on RSM was 0.9961. Errors resulted from model validation is less than 1% and is acceptable for real-life application. RSM model and first principle model were selected to determine the reaction kinetics and yield of reaction for isoamyl acetate. The results showed that RSM model provides a good predication of the esterification system with R2 value of 0.90.
Part of the book: Kinetics of Enzymatic Synthesis