Tumours in the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms originating in the neural ectoderm and other layers of the embryo. In the Children’s Hospital of Mexico Federico Gómez, in accordance with what has been described in corresponding literature, these tumours occupy the third place, after leukaemia and lymphoma, in cancer cases. MiRNAs are non-codifying RNA molecules, of 18–24 nucleotides which regulate the expression of genes in a post-transcriptional level. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development of different types of cancer has been taken into consideration. In the case of astrocytomas, several target molecules of miRNAs have been determined, and their participation in the development of tumours has been proved since they are involved in differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis processes. MiRNAs are less susceptible to chemical modifications and degradement by ribonucleases by comparison with RNAm. The level of expression of miRNAs starting from bodily fluids represents the most promising advance for a non-invasive diagnosis and allows for their use as biomarkers to detect tumours in early stages and correlating them with clinical development.
Part of the book: Glioma