Women are not small men. Sex-specific differences do not only affect the classical target organs of sexual differentiation and reproduction, but have been found to involve most, if not all the organs and tissues in the body. One of the consequences of this dimorphism is that diseases manifest in a sex- and gender-specific way. Key to maintenance of a healthy state is functioning tissue able to cope with insults. Regulated death of damaged cells and replacement with new cells by proliferation is a prerequisite for maintaining tissue function taking place at different pace in the different organs. The intent of this chapter is to review current evidence for sex-specific differences in tissue homeostasis focusing on the variability of hormone exposure characteristic for the female reproductive life stages.
Part of the book: Homeostasis