Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most common procedures performed in orthopedics. The research has focused extensively on surgical technique factors like tunnel position, graft choices, fixation methods, and rehabilitation protocols following surgery. The advantages and disadvantages of each graft option shall help in deciding the correct graft in an individual case. A thorough understanding of anatomy and biomechanics of normal ACL has improved the understanding of complexities of knee joint stabilization over the preceding decades. The chapter shall discuss in detail about the anatomy, biomechanics, and surgical techniques along with postoperative rehabilitation protocol in current perspective.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Arthroscopic Surgery
Fixed flexion deformity at knee is common in osteoarthritic knee and is a combination of bony deformity, capsular and ligamentous deformity. It affects knee biomechanics in terms of increased forces at the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint. This in turn makes carrying out of routine daily activities like walking or use of staircase very difficult. Therefore, it is essential to correct this deformity at the time of operative intervention. Major interventions like posterior capsular release and removal of osteophytes and adequate bony resection helps in correcting the deformity. Post operatively, use of extension night splints and adequate physiotherapy can help in correcting the residual deformity left over at the time of knee arthroplasty.
Part of the book: Knee Surgery