Bioremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals is based on the use of specially selected plants able to reduce the hazards of toxic metals. Depending on the mode of action on the heavy metals existing in the soil and the place where the action takes place, the following mechanisms for soil phytoremediation are distinguished: phytostabilization, phytoextraction, phytoimobilization, rhizofiltration, or evapotranspiration. These mechanisms are complex and include the plant ability to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other pollutants, to extract large amounts of heavy metals from the soil or to evaporate water together with various pollutants already reached in the rhizosphere. Decontamination of polluted soils by using bioaccumulative plants is proposed as an environmental-friendly alternative to the traditional physicochemical methods, being a sustainable method with a great potential in the terms of environmental protection and cost management.
Part of the book: Ecosystem Services and Global Ecology
In substitution therapy for treatment of heroin addiction, methadone is the synthetic opioid agonist of first choice. Methadone doses vary depending on addict profile established by repeated evaluation. It studied a group of 82 patients both male and female, aged between 19 and 47 years, residing in Bucharest, with diagnosis of heroin addiction. They were voluntarily submitted in the methadone substitution treatment at a specialized treatment center for addiction in Bucharest. The study group was characterized in detail, taking into account demographic, comorbid and addiction characteristics, heroin use history, treatment history, and clinical and paraclinical evaluation. The outcomes resulting from the study design on 82 heroin addict patients enrolled into a methadone maintenance program highlighted: lowering of the onset age of heroin use, HVC infection comorbidity, and the extension of the treatment period due to the relapses. The results obtained by clinical, laboratory, and psychological complex evaluations in a correlative approach is essential both in initiating methadone treatment and monitoring the detox period but also in the supervision of methadone maintenance treatment.
Part of the book: Drug Addiction