During the last two and half decade modifying anatase TiO2 has appreciably enhanced our understanding and application of this semiconducting, non-toxic material. In the domain of DSCs, the main focus has been to achieve band adjustment to facilitate electron injection from anchored dyes, and high electronic mobility for photo-generated electron collection. In retrospection, there is a dire need to assimilate and summarize the findings of these studies to further catalyze the research, better understanding and comparison of the structure–property relationships in modifying TiO2 efficiently for crucial photocatalytic, electrochemical and nanostructured applications. This chapter aims at categorizing the typical approaches used to modify TiO2 in the domain of DSCs such as through TiO2 paste additives, TiO2 doping, metal oxides inclusion, dye solution co-adsorbing additives, post staining surface treatment additives and electrolyte additives. A summary of the consequences of these modifications on electron injection, charge extraction, electronic mobility, conduction band shift and surface states has been presented. This chapter is expected to hugely benefit the researchers employing TiO2 in energy, catalysis and battery applications.
Part of the book: Titanium Dioxide