Although poultry industry has gained momentum during the last few decades, there are still various impediments like improper infrastructure, unscientific management and above all various deadly infectious diseases which incur huge economic losses on poultry industry. These diseases include viral diseases like Avian Influenza, Marek’s Disease, New Castle disease and bacterial diseases like Colibacillosis, Pasteurellosis and Salmonellosis, etc. Development of disease resistant poultry has been found successful practice over the use of drugs or vaccines for disease control. Studies involving genome wide associations to figure out certain candidate genes that are involved in disease resistance have also been carried out. Single nucleotide polymorphism studies to unveil the mechanisms underlying disease resistance in chicken show that SNPs and other candidate gene approaches play a vital role in providing disease resistance. Also, understanding the genes and biological pathways that confer genetic resistance to various infections will lead towards the development of more resistant commercial poultry flocks or improved vaccines against various diseases. This chapter shall focus on various factors involved in disease resistance in chicken that interact with the pathogen and provide resistance against the pathogen.
Part of the book: Application of Genetics and Genomics in Poultry Science
Salmonella is an intracellular pathogenic, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and non-spore-forming and usually a motile bacillus that leads to salmonellosis in the host. It is a common food-borne disease that ranges from local gastrointestinal inflammation and diarrhoea to life-threatening typhoid fever and presents usually a serious threat to public health due to its socio-economic value. Inadequate sanitation and impure water help in the propagation of this disease. Despite advancement in the sanitation standards, Salmonella enters the food chain and affects communities globally. There is an immediate need to develop improved vaccines to minimise Salmonella-related illnesses. Some Salmonella serovars infect a wide range of hosts, while others are known to be host restricted. Many different factors determine the adaptability and host specificity of Salmonella. The host-pathogen interactions play a unique role in Salmonella invasion and progression which needs to be studied in detail. This chapter shall focus on our current understanding of Salmonella invasion, pathogenesis and interactions with the host, host specificity and adaptability.
Part of the book: New Insight into Brucella Infection and Foodborne Diseases