Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare form of gastroenterological cancer that divided into intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal bile duct cancer. Approximately, 10,000 new cases are diagnosed annually in the United States, and a 5-year survival rate is below 20%. While only surgical resection can provide a cure, most of cholangiocarcinomas are detected at inoperable stage and associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, cholangiocarcinoma has a high recurrence rate, even after curative surgery. Therefore, chemotherapy has an important role in the treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. International efforts by physicians and researchers are revealing genetic factors of cholangiocarcinoma progression, which will identify early diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets. In this chapter, current strategies of adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and palliative chemotherapy will be discussed, as well as expectant future therapeutic targets and development of individualized therapies.
Part of the book: Topics in the Surgery of the Biliary Tree