Biomarkers have been playing an increasingly significant role in clinical decision making processes worldwide. Numerous studies are being undertaken across the globe in the elusive search for the ideal biomarker for each clinical condition. In the emergency department, where rapid diagnosis of various diseases like acute coronary syndromes, pulmonary embolism, heart failure, sepsis, acute renal failure etc. is of utmost importance, specific biomarkers can expedite the time to diagnosis and treatment. To enumerate, the following biomarkers have proved their worth within the setting of emergency departments across the world. The role of cardiac troponins and CK-MB has been well established in the clinical algorithms to detect myocardial infarction. Newer markers like Heart Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP), BNP, Pro BNP as well as Ischemia modified albumin (IMA) are coming into the fray in the detection of cardiovascular emergencies, especially in the detection of heart failure. Novel biomarkers like Mid-region Proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) are found to be useful in sepsis along with Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukins and Presepsin in burns patients. Human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels can detect renal failure much earlier than conventional methods. S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) has been found to be useful in detection of CNS injury and hence can be used to avoid unnecessary radiation to patients in the form of CT scans. Point of care testing of many of these biomarkers in the Emergency department itself paves way for a revolutionary step in faster emergency care delivery and better patient outcomes.
Part of the book: Neurodegenerative Diseases