Graphene, which is well known as a one-atom thick carbon allotrope, has drawn lots of attention since its first announcement due to remarkable performance in mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, and optical areas. In particular, unique properties of graphene such as low net absorption in broadband optical band, notably high nonlinear optical effects, and gate-variable optical conductivity make it an excellent candidate for high speed, high performance, and broadband electronic and photonics devices. Embedding graphene into optical devices longitudinally would enhance the light-graphene interaction, which shows great potential in photonic components. Since the carrier density of graphene could be tuned by external gate voltage, chemical doping, light excitation, graphene-based waveguide modulator could be designed to have high flexibility in controlling the absorption and modulation depth. Furthermore, graphene-based waveguides could take advantages in detection, sensing, polarizer, and so on.
Part of the book: Emerging Waveguide Technology