Rice is a cereal plant that is consumed in a grain form; however, its prolonged contact with irrigation wastewater might pose a threat to the consumers despite the following milling processes to eliminate the grain surface contamination which means that it needs further cooking to be suitable for human use. Additionally, excessive salt levels in wastewater can cause plant toxicity. Therefore, wastewater disposal can be handled by farm remediation. Rhizobacteria can also be used in this stressful environment to alleviate the problem by triggering a plant growth-promoting response (PGPR). The importance of promoting and biocontrol plant growth is based upon its long-term stability, as well as the numerous generated secondary metabolites, besides its ability to remove heavy metal. The current study revealed that PGPR allowed such toxic effects on sewage to encourage and define the characteristics of plant growth through urban environments.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology