Integrated pest management is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach for pest management. It plays an important role in sustainable agriculture and quality of food production by providing maximum economic yield to the farmer and also improving human health and environment. Recent developments in agricultural technology, modern communication tools, changing consumer trends, increased awareness for sustainably produced food systems, and globalization of trade and travel, have necessitated the need for the IPM paradigm as appropriate for modern times. Although the concept of integrated pest management originated almost 60 years ago, currently integrated pest management is a robust paradigm of pest control around the globe. This chapter reviews the history of integrated pest management, its main principles, and components of integrated pest management such as host plant resistance, cultural control, behavioral control, mechanical/physical control, biological control, and chemical control.